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One model of reducing ageism toward older adults is the Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences (PEACE) model, which focuses on two factors that help reduce ageism toward older adults: “(a) education about aging including facts on aging along with positive older role models that dispel negative and inaccurate images of older adulthood; and (b) positive contact experiences with older adults that are individualized, provide or promote equal status, are cooperative, involve sharing of personal information, and are sanctioned within the setting. These two key contributing factors have the potential to be interconnected and work together to reduce negative stereotypes, aging anxiety, prejudice, and discrimination associated with older adults and aging.” (Levy, 2016, p.2). The PEACE model is supported by findings from a meta-analysis by Burnes et al. (2019) as well as studies that were designed to directly test the PEACE model (Lytle & Levy, 2019; Lytle, Macdonald, Apriceno, & Levy, 2020; Lytle, Nowacek, & Levy, 2020; Macdonald & Levy, 2021).
Figure 1: Levy, S.R. (2016). Toward reducing ageism: PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) Model. The Gerontologist. Article first published online: 10 AUG 2016, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnw116.
Burnes, D., Sheppard, C., Henderson, C. R., Jr., Wassel, M., Cope, R., Barber, C., & Pillemer, K. (2019). Interventions to reduce ageism against older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 109(8), e1–e9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305123.
Canedo-Garcia, A., Garcia-Sanchez, J. N., & Pacheco-Sanz, D. I. (2017). A systematic review of the effectiveness of intergenerational programs. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1882. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01882.
Chonody, J. M. (2015). Addressing ageism in students: A systematic review of the pedagogical intervention literature. Educational Gerontology, 41(2), 859-887. doi: 10.1080/03601277.2015.1059139.
Gaggioli, A., Morganti, L., Bonfiglio, S., Scaratti, C., Cipresso, P., Serino, S., & Riva, G. (2014). Intergenerational group reminiscence: A potentially effective intervention to enhance elderly psychosocial wellbeing and to improve children's perception of aging. Educational Gerontology, 40(7), 486-498. doi: 10.1080/03601277.2013.844042.
Levy, S.R. (2016). Toward reducing ageism: PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) Model. The Gerontologist. Article first published online: 10 AUG 2016, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnw116.
Lytle, A. & Levy, S.R. (2019). Reducing ageism: Education about aging and extended contact with older adults. The Gerontologist, 59 (3), 580–588. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnx177.
Lytle, A., Macdonald, J., Apriceno, M., & Levy, S.R. (2020). Reducing ageism with brief videos about aging education, ageism, and intergenerational contact. The Gerontologist, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnaa167.
Lytle, A., Nowacek, N., & Levy, S. R. (2020). Instapals: Reducing ageism by facilitating intergenerational contact and providing aging education. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 41(3), 308-319. doi: 10.1080/02701960.2020.1737047.
Macdonald, J., & Levy, S. R. (2021). Education to Address Stereotypes about Older adults and Careers Working With Them. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 42(3), 363-379. doi: 10.1080/02701960.2020.1854246. Epub 2020 Dec 5.
Portero, C.F. (2012). Development and implementation of intergenerational programmes in the European context: Spain, Scotland, and the United Kingdom. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships 10, 190–194. doi: 10.1080/15350770.2012.673372.
Roodin, P., Brown, L. H., & Shedlock, D. (2013). Intergenerational service-learning: A review of recent literature and directions for the future. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 34(1), 3-25. doi: 10.1080/02701960.2012.755624.